Reilly D; Taylor MA; Beattie NG; Campbell JH; McSharry C; Aitchison
TC; Carter R; Stevenson RD
University Department of Medicine, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, UK.
Lancet, 344: 8937, 1994 Dec 10, 1601-6
We tested, under independent conditions, the reproducibility of
evidence from two previous trials that homoeopathy differs from
placebo. The test model was again homoeopathic immunotherapy.
28 patients with allergic asthma, most of them sensitive to house-dust
mite, were randomly allocated to receive either oral homoeopathic
immunotherapy to their principal allergen or identical placebo.
The test treatments were given as a complement to their unaltered
conventional care. A daily visual analogue scale of overall symptom
intensity was the outcome measure. A difference in visual analogue
score in favour of homoeopathic immunotherapy appeared within
one week of starting treatment and persisted for up to 8 weeks
(p = 0.003). There were similar trends in respiratory function
and bronchial reactivity tests. A meta-analysis of all three trials
strengthened the evidence that homoeopathy does more than placebo
(p = 0.0004). Is the reproducibility of evidence in favour of
homoeopathy proof of its activity or proof of the clinical trial's
capacity to produce false-positive results?
Molecular mechanism of biological responses to homoeopathic medicines.
Columbia University, New York, NY 10025, USA.
Med Hypotheses, 45: 3, 1995 Sep, 292-6
Assuming that homeopathy is effective beyond the placebo effects,
its biological explanation in favour of the hypothesis of the
hydrate-structure formation is presented. Since cell-surface proteins
are likely to be activated by the hydration-shell structure of
molecules in some cases, the interaction between cell-surface
proteins and the putative clathrate-like hydrate microcrystals
formed during the homoeopathic dilution process is suggested as
a primary molecular mechanism of biological responses to homoeopathic
medicines. This paper examines the probable protein-microcrystal
interaction, forcusing on the cases in which silicon dioxide (silica)
microcrystals cause inflammation and in which hydrate microcrystals
may be formed during general anesthesia.
The effect of highly diluted agitated thyroxine on the climbing
activity of frogs.
Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut for Homeopathy, Graz, Austria.
Vet Hum Toxicol, 36: 1, 1994 Feb, 56-9
We studied the influence of specially prepared highly diluted
thyroxine on the spontaneous tendency of juvenile frogs, which
were at the end of thyroxine-controlled metamorphosis, to leave
the water and climb onto land. The test dilution with a thyroxine
concentration beyond Avogadro's value (dilution thyroxine D30)
and the reference (dilution water D30) were prepared according
to directions from the literature on homeopathy. A few drops of
these solutions were added to tap water of basins containing the
frogs. The frogs' climbing activities were monitored immediately
after adding the solutions. The hypothesis derived from a preliminary
study was that there is less climbing activity in frogs treated
with dilution thyroxine D30 than in a reference group. This hypothesis
was proven. Climbing activity diminished under the influence of
dilution thyroxine D30, with statistical significance both in
comparison to the effect of the analogously prepared solvent (dilution
water D30) as well as in comparison to control observations before
the start of treatment. When in a later step of observation the
dilution water D30-control group was treated with dilution thyroxine
D30, the diminishing effect on activity also occurred.
Effect of homeopathic drugs plumbum and opium on experimentally
induced lead toxicity in rats.
Begum R; Koshy R; Sengupta A
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, M.S. University
of Baroda, India.
Indian J Exp Biol, 32: 3, 1994 Mar, 192-5
Homeopathic drugs plumbum 1M and Opium 30 were partially effective
in the recovery of delta ALAD activity of the lead (150 mg% lead
acetate) intoxicated rats. Plumbum 1M did not exhibit protective
effect when dietary lead at high concentrations (> 25 mg% lead
acetate) were given concurrently as assessed by blood delta ALAD
activity and hemoglobin concentration. However it was partially
effective in the recovery of delta ALAD activity and relieving
anemia caused by chronic exposure of low doses of lead (below
15 mg% lead acetate).
Treatment with zincum metallicum CH5 in patients with liver cirrhosis.
Badulici S; Chirulescu Z; Chirila P; Chirila M; Rosca A
Christiana Center of Social Medicine, Bucharest, Romania.
Rom J Intern Med, 32: 3, 1994 Jul-Sep, 215-9
The zinc, an important enzymatic cofactor, is involved in many
metabolic processes. Its deficiency might be due either to malabsorption
or to excessive utilization. In the medical literature of the
latest 10 years, zinc was considered to play a part in the immune
processes. The authors of the present paper intend to study the
zinc and immunoglobulin levels in various diseases, i.e., chronic
progressive hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (LC), dermatitis, bronchial
asthma. This preliminary investigation was carried out in 30 patients
with LC in whom serum zinc values were assayed by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry and the immunoglobulin levels were determined
using the Mancini type simple radial immunodiffusion technique.
All these patients presented considerable decrease of serum zinc
concentration, the values ranging between 3.06 and 7.65 mumol/l
as compared with 19.8 +/- 1.5 mumol/l in the controls, alongside
with the increase of immunoglobulins G and M. In the patients
treated with Zincum metallicum CH5 it was observed after about
30 days of treatment that the clinical state was considerably
improved and IgG and IgM as well as serum zinc had resumed their
normal values. This treatment should not be interrupted since
in LC, without permanent additional supply, the serum zinc returns
rapidly to the initial deficit or even lower.
Wound healing by homeopathic silica dilutions in mice
Oberbaum M; Markovits R; Weisman Z; Kalinkevits A; Bentwich Z
Ruth Ben-Ari Institute of Clinical Immunology, Kaplan Hospital,
Harefuah, 123: 3-4, 1992 Aug, 79-82, 156
Highly diluted solutions of silica are widely used in homeopathic
medicine to treat lesions such as chronic wounds, ulcers, and
abscesses. We tested the therapeutic effects of homeopathic dilutions
of silica on induced chronic wounds. Holes were made in the ears
of mice by dental wire, which then remained hanging from the ear
to cause persistent mechanical irritation. In each experiment
3 or 4 groups of 10 mice each were treated by adding homeopathic
dilutions of silica (10(-10), 10(-60), 10(-400)) and of saline
(10(-10), respectively, to the drinking water of the mice for
4-20 days. The size of the wound holes was measured every second
day (grades 0-4) and/or by an objective image analysis system.
The results showed that in 7/11 experiments the ear holes of the
silica-treated animals were significantly smaller (p less than
0.05-0.001) and healed faster than in those treated with saline.
Also the therapeutic effect increased progressively with increase
in dilution of the silica (10(-10) less than 10(-60) less than
10(-400)). These results show that homeopathic dilutions of silica
(even well beyond Avogadro's number) clearly have a therapeutic
effect on wound healing and that our experimental model for studying
wound healing is a very useful tool for such studies.
The clinical efficacy of Vertigoheel in the treatment of vertigo
of various etiology.
Morawiec-Bajda A; Lukomski M; Latkowski B
ENT Clinic, Medical Academy in Lódz, Poland.
Panminerva Med, 35: 2, 1993 Jun, 101-4
In this paper the authors describe the clinical efficacy in treatment
of vertigo of various etiology. A group of 31 patients were treated
with Vertigoheel medication: 14 patients suffered from vertebrobasilar
arterial insufficiency, 8 patients were diagnosed as Meniere's
disease, 5 patients complained of vertigo of traumatic origin
and 4 patients suffered from neuronitis vestibularis. The authors
found regression of clinical symptoms in the majority of cases
in the investigated group who were treated with Vertigoheel.
Different effects of homeopathic potencies and conventional dilutions
on specific liver enzymes of rats--an in vivo study
Unterschiedliche Wirkungen von homöopathischen Potenzen und konventionellen
Verdünnungen auf spezifische Leberenzyme der Ratte--ein in vivo
Theenhaus U; Dittmann J; Harisch G
Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Tierärztlichen Hochschule
It was searched for differing effects of homeopathic potencies
and equally concentrated conventional dilutions. Activities of
enzymes from three different subcellular compartments of the rat
liver served as parameters for the evaluation. Especially in the
D15/10(-15) range differences proved to be statistically relevant.
The series with potentiated carrier substance, necessary from
heuristic reasons and related to the homeopathic potencies, resulted
in hitherto not understandable findings.
Effects of lowest levels of drugs--a contribution to homeopathy
Effekte kleinster Wirkstoffmengen--ein Beitrag zur Homöopathie-Forschung.
Harisch G; Kretschmer M; Riemann-Gürlich CE
Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Tierärztlichen Hochschule
After oral administration of homoeopathically prepared low-dose-amounts
of Conium and Mercury phosphate to male Wistar rats enzymatic
parameters were investigated in three subcellular compartments
of the liver under blind conditions. 1. After seven single application
of the substance amount referring to a D8 potency a maximum effect
could be detected for both agents. 2. The relation between agent
and magnitude of the provoked effect is not linear. 3. The importance
of these results is discussed and integrated into a general context.
The use of homeopathy in treating diabetics
Primenenie gomeopatii v lechenii bol'nykh sakharnym diabetom.
Mamchenko GF; Kolesova GP
Vrach Delo, 11-12, 1992 Nov-Dec, 74-6
The rationale of homeopathic treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM)
with constitutional predisposition is discussed. On the basis
of a detailed analysis of one case the author describes the method
of homeopathic treatment of diabetes mellitus. The treatment is
orientated not only on the treatment of DM but also of concomitant
diseases with emphasis in the patients constitution. Minimal doses
of homeopathic treatment used in 68 patients resulted in a statistically
valid stable reduction of hyperglycemia and glucosuria. Stable
subcompensation and compensation of DM allowed to decrease the
dose of sugar reducing drugs.
The late results of treatment with homeopathic agents in patients
with prostatic adenoma
Otdalennye rezul'taty lecheniia gomeopaticheskimi sredstvami bol'nykh
s adenomoi predstatel'noi zhelezy.
Vozianov AF; Simeonova NK
Vrach Delo, 7, 1990 Jul, 93-5
The results of treatment with homeopathic remedies in dilutions
10(-400), 10(-2000), 10(-20000) are represented. The informative
energetic hologramic conception of homeopathy is proposed. The
homeopathic drugs are considered as holograms and the human organic
as a biohologram. The resonance is a mode of their interaction
with a wide therapeutic effect as a result.
Incidence of homeopathic treatment with cuprum 4 CH on the intestinal
transit of mouse: preliminary study
Incidence d'un traitement homéopathique par cuprum 4 CH sur le
transit intestinal de la Souris: étude préliminaire.
Santini R; Tessier M; Belon P; Pacheco H
INSA, Laboratoire de Physiologie-Pharmacodynamie, Villeurbanne.
C R Seances Soc Biol Fil, 184: 1, 1990, 55-8
An homeopathic treatment with cuprum 4 CH, 24 and 5 hours before
neostigmine (50 micrograms/kg/IP) administration has been done
in the mouse. This treatment significantly reduces (Kruskal-Wallis:
p less than 0.02) the faciliting action of neostigmine on intestinal
Aconite in homeopathic relief of post-operative pain and agitation
Aconit en dilution homéopathique et agitation post-opératoire
Alibeu JP; Jobert J
Département d'anesthésie-réanimation, CHU de Grenoble, France.
Pediatrie (Bucur), 45: 7-8, 1990, 465-6
Despite the use of modern analgesic methods and an improved use
of narcotics, the combination pain-agitation sometimes persists
in the recovery-room. Aconit seems to be an appropriate homeopathic
treatment in this case. To prescribe it, the following conditions
must be combined: violence and suddeness of the stress bringing
about intense and anguish. The study included 50 children with
such symptoms; it was carried out double-blind, the children being
given either placebo or Aconit. Aconit proved to be effective
for children's postoperative agitation with 95% good results.
It is usually stated in such studies that the placebo effect is
high and may reach rates higher than 30%. Aconit is an amazing
cure when well prescribed, as much for the speediness of its action
as for its efficiency. This remedy has a place in the recovery-room
and should be in every physician's emergency case. The fundamental
research could specify how the remedy works and may be discover
other molecules effective for stress.
The in vitro action of a succussed substance on the proliferative
response of human lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin.
Chirila M; Hristescu S; Manda G; Neagu M; Olinescu A
N. Gh. Lupu Institute of Internal Medicine, Bucharest, Romania.
Rom J Intern Med, 30: 1, 1992 Jan-Mar, 63-7
Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy controls, immunodepressed
patients presenting chronic bacterial infections or neoplasias
and from allergic patients were stimulated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin
(PHA) in culture medium supplemented or not with 1 x 10(-7), 1
x 10(-15) or 1 x 10(-30) succussed dilutions or bee venom or phosphorus
in tridistilled water. The most significant inhibition due to
DNA incorporation was noted in lymphocytes from allergic patients
cultivated in media supplemented with 1 x 10(-30) succussed substance
dilution in the presence of PHA. The cells from immunodepressed
patients did not show a significant inhibition at 1 x 10(-30)
dilution. Hypothetically, we try to explain these findings as
the expression of the changes induced by the succussed solution
on the water molecule which in turn, influences the chemical structure
of the cellular membrane and implicitly, its functions.
Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine:
a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua
Jacobs J; Jiménez LM; Gloyd SS; Gale JL; Crothers D
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community
Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.
Pediatrics, 93: 5, 1994 May, 719-25
OBJECTIVE. Acute diarrhea is the leading cause of pediatric morbidity
and mortality worldwide. Oral rehydration treatment can prevent
death from dehydration, but does not reduce the duration of individual
episodes. Homeopathic treatment for acute diarrhea is used in
many parts of the world. This study was performed to determine
whether homeopathy is useful in the treatment of acute childhood
diarrhea. METHODOLOGY. A randomized double-blind clinical trial
comparing homeopathic medicine with placebo in the treatment of
acute childhood diarrhea was conducted in León, Nicaragua, in
July 1991. Eighty-one children aged 6 months to 5 years of age
were included in the study. An individualized homeopathic medicine
was prescribed for each child and daily follow-up was performed
for 5 days. Standard treatment with oral rehydration treatment
was also given. RESULTS. The treatment group had a statistically
significant (P < .05) decrease in duration of diarrhea, defined
as the number of days until there were less than three unformed
stools daily for 2 consecutive days. There was also a significant
difference (P < .05) in the number of stools per day between the
two groups after 72 hours of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. The statistically
significant decrease in the duration of diarrhea in the treatment
group suggests that homeopathic treatment might be useful in acute
childhood diarrhea. Further study of this treatment deserves consideration.
The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized
controlled trial (published erratum appears in Can Fam Physician
Les effets de l'Arnica Montana sur la coagulation sanguine. Essai
Baillargeon L; Drouin J; Desjardins L; Leroux D; Audet D
Unité de recherche clinique en médecine familiale, Centre hospitalier
de l'Université Laval.
Can Fam Physician, 39:1993 Nov, 2362-7
The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period
cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic
substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time
(Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation
tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant
impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers
in the period immediately following administration [corrected].
Effect of homoeopathic medicines on daily burden of symptoms in
children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
de Lange de Klerk ES; Blommers J; Kuik DJ; Bezemer PD; Feenstra
Vakgroep Epidemiologie en Biostatistiek, Faculteit der Geneeskunde,
Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
BMJ, 309: 6965, 1994 Nov 19, 1329-32
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the intrinsic effects of individually
prescribed homoeopathic medicines. DESIGN--Randomised double blind
placebo controlled study. SETTING--Paediatric outpatient department
of university hospital. PATIENTS--175 children with frequently
recurring upper respiratory tract infections. Of the 170 children
evaluable, 86 were randomised to homoeopathic medicines (47 boys,
39 girls; median age at start 4.2 years; median number of episodes
in past year 4) and 84 to placebo (43 boys, 41 girls; median age
at start 3.6 years; median number of episodes in past year 4).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean score for daily symptoms, number of
antibiotic courses, and number of adenoidectomies and tonsillectomies
over one year of follow up. RESULTS--The mean daily symptom score
was 2.61 in the placebo group and 2.21 in the treatment group
(difference 0.41; 95% confidence interval -0.02 to 0.83). In both
groups the use of antibiotics was greatly reduced compared with
that in the year before entering the trial (from 73 to 33 in the
treatment group and from 69 to 43 in the placebo group). The proportion
of children in the treatment group having adenoidectomies was
lower in the treatment group (16%, 8/50) than in the placebo group
(21%, 9/42). The proportion having tonsillectomies was the same
in both groups (5%). CONCLUSION--Individually prescribed homoeopathic
medicines seem to add little to careful counselling of children
with recurrent upper respiratory tract infection in reducing the
daily burden of symptoms, use of antibiotics, and need for adenoidectomy
Treatment of fever of unknown origin by homeopathy
Outpatient Homeopathy Clinic, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel
Harefuah, 126: 6, 1994 Mar 15, 317-20, 368, 367
2 cases of fever of unknown origin (FUO) treated successfully
by homeopathy are presented. The purpose is to show the effectiveness
of homeopathy as adjuvant therapy for those in whom the full medical
diagnostic process, assessment, and treatment are not effective.
In a 12-year-old boy fever and abdominal pain persisted for several
months despite various medical treatments. All symptoms disappeared
following homeopathic treatment. In a 66-year-old man fever and
other symptoms also disappeared after such treatment. We emphasize
that homeopathy is not a substitute for the full conventional
medical diagnostic investigation and treatment of FUO. Homeopathy
should only be practiced by medical doctors to avoid, to the greatest
extent, diagnostic and therapeutic errors.
Research in homeopathy: data, problems and prospects
Ricerca in omeopatia: dati, problemi e prospettive.
Istituto di Chimica e Microscopia Clinica, Università degli Studi,
Ann Ist Super Sanita, 26: 2, 1990, 179-87
In the recent years the interest for the therapeutic use of exogenous
and endogenous natural compounds, that are also employed at very
low dosage, is growing up. In this context, an important role
is played by homoeopathic medicine, which is involving increasing
number of physicians and researchers, besides the common people.
Here a critical approach to the problem of homoeopathy theory
and research is attempted. The traditional concepts of the homoeopathy
are challenged with the modern knowledge arising from basic and
applied research. It is shown that at least a part of these concepts
may find a good correspondence into the modern physiopathology.
However, a number of problems, both of biological-biomedical and
of practical nature remain unresolved. Moreover, any explanation
of the effect of extremely diluted drugs is still hypothetical.
In the second part of the work, laboratory investigations regarding
the test of the homoeopathic drugs and of ultra-low doses of various
substances in several experimental models are reviewed. Even if
the evidence is far from to be conclusive, a number of studies
showed that compounds, that are prepared and diluted according
to the methods of the homoeopathic medicine, may exhibit specific
stimulatory or inhibitory activities in selected experimental
Macklis RM; Beresford B
Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
J Nucl Med, 32: 2, 1991 Feb, 350-9
"Radiation hormesis" is the name given to the putative stimulatory
effects of low level ionizing radiation (generally in the range
of 1-50 cGy of low-LET radiation). Based on historical and pharmacologic
principles reminiscent of some of the major tenets of homeopathy,
most of these effects are now generally ascribed to protective
feedback systems that, upon exposure to low concentrations of
toxins, proceed to stimulate metabolic detoxification and repair
networks. The activation of these networks may then result in
net beneficial effects on the cell, organism or species. Discussions
of possible stimulatory effects of low levels of ionizing radiation
have recently become entangled with the separate but related question
of whether a threshold dose level exists on the radiotoxicologic
dose-response curve. This review summarizes some of the relevant
historical and scientific data bearing on the question of radiation
hormesis. We find the data in support of most of the hormesis
postulates intriguing but inconclusive.
Clinical trials of homoeopathy
Kleijnen J; Knipschild P; ter Riet G
Department of Epidemiology and Health Care Research, University
of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
BMJ, 302: 6772, 1991 Feb 9, 316-23
OBJECTIVE--To establish whether there is evidence of the efficacy
of homoeopathy from controlled trials in humans. DESIGN--Criteria
based meta-analysis. Assessment of the methodological quality
of 107 controlled trials in 96 published reports found after an
extensive search. Trials were scored using a list of predefined
criteria of good methodology, and the outcome of the trials was
interpreted in relation to their quality. SETTING--Controlled
trials published world wide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of
the trials with the best methodological quality. Trials of classical
homoeopathy and several modern varieties were considered separately.
RESULTS--In 14 trials some form of classical homoeopathy was tested
and in 58 trials the same single homoeopathic treatment was given
to patients with comparable conventional diagnosis. Combinations
of several homoeopathic treatments were tested in 26 trials; isopathy
was tested in nine trials. Most trials seemed to be of very low
quality, but there were many exceptions. The results showed a
positive trend regardless of the quality of the trial or the variety
of homeopathy used. Overall, of the 105 trials with interpretable
results, 81 trials indicated positive results whereas in 24 trials
no positive effects of homoeopathy were found. The results of
the review may be complicated by publication bias, especially
in such a controversial subject as homoeopathy. CONCLUSIONS--At
the moment the evidence of clinical trials is positive but not
sufficient to draw definitive conclusions because most trials
are of low methodological quality and because of the unknown role
of publication bias. This indicates that there is a legitimate
case for further evaluation of homoeopathy, but only by means
of well performed trials.
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